This is the sixth and last (but not least) part of my Authentication and security for REST API in the context of Web Apps series of posts. We covered each steps of designing and securing a RESTful authentication API.
Security in the authentication mechanism is paramount. A secure authentication layer ensures no user will be (easily) impersonated. It also ensures no data will be stolen from the user, either because of phishing attacks (criteria 8) or because of tracking and privacy-lacking tokens (criteria 10).
Here, we won’t focus on anything related to authentication in particular, but rather try to take a tour of general solutions for securing or obfuscating a RESTful API and other security issues.
Securing a Web App is often an uphill battle. Plugging one hole often means opening another. For example:
Focusing on security will also require us to take a look at broader API design considerations and ideas.
Many Web Apps or APIs restrict data manipulation to a very narrow set of operations. These operations usually take the form of a pre-determined set or sequence of HTML forms or API calls. Each with its own set of fields and allowed values.
Since REST architectures should be resource-based and not operation-based, this is usually a common pitfall while trying to design a RESTful API.
This has the disadvantages of restricting greatly the potential UIs and UX implementations, and confusing API-agnostic clients. Moreover, carrying on these operations often requires an extensive set of ad-hoc error-prone checks and verifications.
A more resource-centric and RESTful approach, would be to produce a liberal resource schema, with very few mandatory fields (ideally none), and a strict set of validation constraints (invariants).
Updating an existing resource SHOULD be done using either
operations, with as few restrictions on the allowed modifications set as
PUT is the most RESTful HTTP operation to update a resource,
it might be impractical to upload the whole resource each time a slight
modification is required.
PATCH’s goal is to update the state of a resource. This doesn’t mean a partial
upload or a partial
PUT. It means updating a resource using a precise list of
operations. A media type with a well defined semantic MUST be used for
operations (such as JSON patch
or JSON merge patch).
PUT operations SHOULD be safe-guarded by
using precondition headers (e.g.,
The set of read-write fields, the possible values for enum-based fields, and the pattern-matching restrictions for each field SHOULD be specified in the API Documentation for the resource. This SHOULD represent accurately the current set of invariants for the resource and allow each client to present its preferred UI to the user.
A resource MAY use several sets of invariants during its life-cycle. However, a
change in the set of invariant SHOULD be triggered by a
POST operation. A
change in the set of invariants will often be required when a resource’s state
change implies additional side effects, such as sending an email, or interacting
with an external service. A
POST operation makes such side effects more
To trigger these side effects correctly, the server will usually need to apply further validation to the resources, such as requiring some fields and ensuring such and such field has a satisfying value.
POST operations only for side-effects and invariant transitions should
reduce significantly the number of complex and fragile operations.
Reducing the number of operations available and homogenizing them will reduce both the amount of code (therefore the possibility of bugs) and attack surface. Relying on static invariants (usually much easier to define and test) rather than dynamic ones will also reduce the attack surface and reduce constraints on clients.
Creating a resource SHOULD be done using either of these solutions:
POSToperation on a special resource creation endpoint for this type of resource.
PATCHoperation to the listing endpoint of the resource. The semantic of this
PATCHoperation would be to modify the list by adding an element to it (the new resource).
In any case, this operation SHOULD take the necessary minimalist information to initialize the resource (ideally none) as input.
Deletion of a resource SHOULD be done with a
DELETE operation. It also (in
addition or alternatively) MAY be done by sending a
PATCH request on the
listing endpoint removing the appropriate index from the list.
For creation and deletion, different API will probably choose different
approaches for different resources. For example, a
DELETE scheme might
be better for resources without a global canonical listing endpoint, while the
PATCH-only approach could be better for sub-resources and list-valued
If a more integrated user experience is sought after, it should be taken care of in the Web App, not enforced by the API. This also means that changing the whole user experience should only require modifications in the Web App and not in the API.
From an obfuscation standpoint, this is similar to using non-consecutive or obfuscated IDs, although on a much broader scale. It will make listing the intended or potential operations on the resources so abstract, the API will give almost no information on how to manipulate the resources maliciously. It will also be harder for an attacker to determine which potential modification would be meaningful and which ones would be trivial in nature. A very constrained API, on the other hand, gives so much information on its intentions, it may give a lot of information on its inner working.
Many applications nowadays use “404 Not Found” to mask the existence of resources the user isn’t granted access to. As opposed to “403 Forbidden”, “404 Not Found” are the de facto standard for refusing access in industry-grade Web Apps.
However, this is often done is a way that violate the concept of manipulating resources, but without actually hiding information.
For example, let’s say a user has read/write access to a resource
read-only access to a resource
B. Typically, current APIs or Web Apps would
advertise read/write operations (
PUT) to update resource A, but
not resource B.
Most of the time, the API will even document these read/write operations on a global level, in the API Documentation for the API’s entry-point. Therefore, even if the user has access to no resources of this type, they will be aware of the existence of these operations.
In this context returning a “404 Not Found” for a write operation on B is utterly misleading:
GETrequest. Plus the information is inconsistent based on the HTTP Verb. In a resource-centric approach, it should not be.
This behavior comes with absolutely no value and carries the potential cost of confusing clients and user agents.
However, if the user doesn’t have access, at all to a resource C, returning a “404 Not Found” for this resource C, for any operation on it, will effectively hide the very existence of this resource. This is an example of a valid use of “404 Not Found” to mask a resource.
For these reasons, the server MAY return a “404 Not Found” for an existing resource only if the user has no other way of determining whether the resource exists. Since RESTful APIs are designed to be automatically discoverable, any information available on a given resource will be found trivially by automated tools. In this context, restricting “404 Not Found”s responses to thoroughly hidden resources is not increasing the amount of information or the simplicity of finding such information.
Other HTTP Status error codes should be returned appropriately. Most error codes will be triggered at the explicit request of the client (e.g., 406, 412, 415 or 417) and replacing them by “404 Not Found” or generic “400 Bad Request” will only make integration with API-agnostic clients more difficult.
PUToperation on a read-only known-to-exist resource SHOULD return a “405 Method Not Supported” response.
PATCHoperation on a known resource SHOULD return a “400 Bad Request”.
The only error code that would provide information that would not be available otherwise is “500 Internal Server Error” for an unexpected error. This one MAY be be replaced by a “400 Bad Request” error code in production, in order to mask server crashes.
However, special care must be taken to avoid timing attacks: If some “400 Bad Request”s are returned early during the request processing and other much later, it will be easy to segregate the ones triggered during the early request validation step from the ones triggered by a crash later on.
Many industry-level web applications take great care to obfuscate their IRIs. Thus making more difficult for a potential attacker or automated script to spam the API in the hope to find a flaw.
Although these IRIs are great from a SEO and human point-of-view, they give rise to two issues:
The first point can actually make you a more worthy target or allow an attacker to track other users activity.
It also renders the common practice to replace “403 Forbidden” by “404 Not Found” completely useless. Any ID lower than a known one can be assumed to exist.
The second point will advertise a lower cost target. Since an attacker can have a pretty good idea of how many IRIs they need to attack.
An easy solution for this is to generate randomized IDs. By presenting arbitrarily larges and non-monotones IDs, any attacker will immediately notice that they are randomized. It will basically signal two things:
An attacker will always prefer a target with an attack surface easy to determine rather than a potentially much broader one. This is the reason why these facts need to be publicized upfront.
This would mitigate effectively both issues previously mentioned, while still offering the same human readable and SEO features.
Special care must be taken to ensure timing attacks are not possible. A request for a non-existent resource will typically be recognized more quickly (as soon as the resource lookup aborts) than a request for a forbidden resource (which needs to go through the authorization verification process). This difference can be used by an attacker to determine which resources actually exist or not.
Requests on an actually non-existent resources MUST be slowed down to the level of a forbidden resource. This will have the side effect of Rate Limiting resource probing, for no additional cost. In connection intensive environments, the waiting period could be delegated to a separate HTTP server, set up as a reverse proxy. This separate server could be delegated the responsibility for TLS endpoint, load balancing, web application firewall, IDS system, caching, resource composition or normalization, and others. These are all responsibilities that do not require to be hosted on the main applicative server.
However, for some applications, the simple fact that IRI parameters exist can provide a trove of data, which brings us to our next discussion.
Let’s take the example of a big and complex banking application. They have many resources:
/account/98234798/stock/234987493 already can expose the fact
that account 98234798, whatever it is, is a market account, not a chequing or a
savings account. This can trigger an attacker to try specific strategies for
specific specific accounts.
In such an extremely hostile environment, IRIs’ path SHOULD be completely encrypted. For example, using AES256 or a public/private key algorithm and using an IRI-safe base64 encoding to produce the public path.
Such an encryption layer could be abstracted in an IRI management library, or enforce by a reverse proxy, which would allow developers to disable it during development, for ease of access and debugging.
Having a strict underlying path pattern will allow IRI padding to ensure the IRIs’ size cannot be determined. Forbidding IRI templating will ensure no additional information is leaked from the IRI and effectively increase the cost of resource enumeration to a prohibitive value.
In this case, additional care MUST be taken to ensure resource access is checked as soon as possible and in a consistent manner. Otherwise, timing attacks would become possible (See previous point).
This solution alone is obviously useless if every media types and operation is advertised in the API Documentation for the API’s entry point. To prevent such situation, APIs with complete IRI obfuscation SHOULD advertise a very limited portion of themselves in their global documentation.
For example, a user connecting to our banking application would be provided with the following endpoints (after authentication):
And that should be it. The documentation SHOULD use non-dereferenceable or generic IRIs to identify types and other identifying parts of the API. This will ensure no further information on the IRIs is provided.
When an resource is accessed, its result will include the documentation for further operations and access to other resources.
This solution will make it much harder to generate a complete map of the application or API. A user will only ever be advertised the operations and resources they have access to and are using.
Let’s say a user A doesn’t have any stock-market account, they will never know what resources stock-market accounts offer or what operations they support. This could allow the API provider to seamlessly restrict access to the API based on a pricing plan or paid features, while retaining essential REST characteristics. Including resources manipulation, API-agnostic clients and Hypermedia driven API.
These are extreme cases and SHOULD NOT be implemented without careful considerations. This will very often render several IRI-based tools useless and may make development or debugging an integrated Web App supporting the API much more difficult.
It is important to note as well that these encrypted IRIs should only be the API’s endpoints, not the IRIs made visible to the user by an SPA. The later will usually not require such a level of obfuscation.
A scheme providing enough information to identify both the resource and the component that need to be activated upon reloading the Web App would be enough. Such a scheme could, for example, reference the server resources using indexes within the users’ list of available resources, or other paths meaningless for an attacker without access to the resources themselves. These IRIs SHOULD NOT contain any part of the resources’ actual ID (its endpoint within the API), but only provide a way to navigate the resource graph itself from a well known entry-point. This way even if a user copy-paste the IRI they see to someone else, this will provide no information whatsoever on the API and the underlying datastore.
This also allow the Web App to present user friendly IRIs to the user while using opaque IRIs when communicating with the server.